Radiation Detector and Dosimeter
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Radioactive radiation may consist of α-, β- or γ-rays. Although α-rays are energetic, they only have a range of a few centimeters in the air due to their relatively high mass. Within this range, however, the effect of the α-rays is then large. In the case of incorporated radioactive substances, ie those absorbed into the body, the α-rays must therefore be taken into account. β-rays have only a small mass and relatively low energy content and are already intercepted by thin layers of material such as a shirt. The energy content of the γ-rays is comparable to that of the β-rays. Nevertheless, because of their lack of mass, they have such a great depth effect that they make a significant contribution to the radiation risk.
The total mean radiation exposure of the population of Germany is about 4.0 mSv / a. The proportion of artificial radiation exposure is about 1.6 mSv / a and is almost exclusively caused by X-ray diagnostics. The unchanged natural radiation with about 2.4 mSv / a contains the cosmic radiation with about 0.3 mSv / a, the terrestrial radiation from the ground with about 0.4 mSv / a and the internal radiation by incorporated radioactive substances with approx. 0.4 mSv / a.
Enclosed we have put together various Geiger counters and dosimeters that can be used to detect radioactive radiation in nuclear medicine and in environmental and radiation protection. The accuracy is defined here by the type and number of Geiger-Mueller tube used. Professional devices usually have 2 tubes or a large, thicker and are therefore more sensitive or more accurate.